Cole, M. (1996). Cultural Psychology: A once and future discipline. Harvard University Press. Chapter 2 - pp 52-68
[p52] To begin with, Binet and Simon offered a definition of the quality they sought to test for: "It seems to us that in intelligence there is a fundamental faculty, the alteration or lack of which is of the utmost importance for practical life. This faculty is judgment, otherwise called good sense, practical sense, initiative, the faculty of adapting oneself to circumstances. To judge well, to comprehend well, to reason well, these are the essential activities of intelligence" (Binet and Simon, 1916, p. 43).
[p54] Although Binet and Simon specifically warned against the procedure, their test, and tests like it, began to be used as measures of overall aptitude for solving problems in general, rather than samples of problem-solving ability and knowledge that are important to formal education in particular. They also ignored Binet and Simon's warning about dealing with children from different cultural backgrounds.
[p57] Whatever IQ test performance is not related to, it most certainly is related to schooling.