Walqui, A. (2006). Scaffolding instruction for English language learners: A conceptual framework. The International journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9(2), 159-180.
p. 164: In education, scaffolding can be thought of as three related pedagogical ‘scales’. First, there is the meaning of providing a support structure to enable certain activities and skills to develop. Second, there is the actual carrying out of particular activities in class. And, third, there is the assistance provided in moment-to-moment interaction. Schematically, this can be represented in the following way:
Scaffolding 1: Planned curriculum progression over time (e.g. a series of tasks over time, a project, a classroom ritual)
Scaffolding 2: The procedures used in a particular activity (an instantiation of Scaffolding 1)
Scaffolding 3: The collaborative process of interaction (the process of achieving Scaffolding 2)
We can see how the sequence here moves from macro to micro, from planned to improvised, and from structure to process (Gibbons, 2003; van Lier, 1996). As we all know, plans have a way of changing as they are being carried out. In particular, pedagogical action is always a blend of the planned and the improvised, the predicted and the unpredictable, routine and innovation.
Features of pedagogical scaffolding (p.165)
All three scales of pedagogical scaffolding have six central features, according to van Lier (2004). As in any type of scaffolding, they are contingent, collaborative and interactive. However, in an educational setting, these features are further refined and features specific to schooling are added:
- Continuity: Tasks are repeated, with variations and connected to one another (e.g. as part of projects).
- Contextual: support Exploration is encouraged in a safe, supportive environment; access to means and goals is promoted in a variety of ways.
- Intersubjectivity: Mutual engagement and rapport are established; there is encouragement and nonthreatening participation in a shared community of practice.
- Contingency Task: procedures are adjusted depending on actions of learners; contributions and utterances are oriented towards each other and may be coconstructed (or, see below, vertically constructed).
- Handover/takeover: There is an increasing role for the learner as skills and confidence increase; the teacher watches carefully for the learner’s readiness to take over increasing parts of the action.
- Flow Skills: and challenges are in balance; participants are focused on the task and are ‘in tune’ with each other.
Types of instructional scaffolding to use with English learners (pp. 170-177)
Assisting English learners’ performance in the English as a second language class or in subject matter classes taught in English can be done in many different ways. Six main types of instructional scaffolding are especially salient: modelling, bridging, contextualisation, building schema, re-presenting text and developing metacognition.
Modeling is the explicit presentation of examples of the products, learning processes, and the types of language that are most appropriate for each situation.
Text representation can be thought of as helping students learn conventions associated with particular language uses by translating content across genres, engaging in genre transformation.
Contextualization is scaffolding that links particular academic tasks with situated variables to enhance the students' ability to derive meaning from language and produce language that is both appropriate and effective.
Bridging is scaffolding that aims to make clear and explicit links between content and each student's prior knowledge, experiences, and interests as well as previously taught content.
Metacognitive development is ensuring that students choose strategies consciously for each activity and evaluating their choices and future choices based on results.
Schema-building is related to text representation in that the goal is to help students organize knowledge according to subject-specific frameworks (e.g., cycles, causeeffects, contrasts, whole-parts) and norms and conventions associated with oral and written discourse.